Senior official in the Florentine Republic, with responsibilities in diplomatic and military affairs.
Machiavellianism is a term used to describe the sort the politicians that Machiavelli outlined in his book The Prince.
Similar to realpolitik, Machiavelli described immoral behaviour (such as deceit or even killing) normal in politics when fulfilling one’s aims.
Otto Von Bismarck:
1815 - 1898
Founder and first chancellor of the German Empire.
Nicknamed as the “Iron Chancellor”
Most associated with realpolitik.
Appointed Chief Minister by Wilhelm I in 1862, when he set about starting and winning a series of wars against neighbouring countries (Denmark, France and Austria-Hungary) to protect and unite all German states.
1923 (95 years)
Served as the United States Secretary of State and National Security Advisor for the administrations of Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford.
Yet another practitioner of realpolitik, he received the 1973 Nobel Peace Prize for his (later unsuccessful) actions in negotiating a ceasefire in Vietnam during the signings of the Paris Peace Accords.
Other notable achievements during his official service was easing strained relations with the Soviet Union and opening relations with China.
Quite a bit of controversy surrounds Kissinger’s 1973 Nobel Peace Prize, since peace did not come to South or North Vietnam and the conflict would only continue for 2 more years (without US intervention)
1884 - 1962
First Lady of the United States from March 1933 to April 1945 during Franklin D. Roosevelt’s (her husband) four terms in office.
Later called the “First Lady of the World” for her achievements in Human Rights.
She pressed the United States to join the UN and became its first delegate.
1921 - 2005
The tenth president of India,
Began his diplomatic career as member of the Indian Foreign Service in the Nehru Administration.
His most notable achievement was his lifetime devoted to Indian diplomatic service.
Former Indian ambassador to Japan, Thailand, Turkey, China, the UK, and the US
1743 - 1826
3rd President of the United States,
Pioneer in foreign diplomatic procedure and the main author of the Declaration of Independence
During his presidency (1801 - 1809), he:
Organized the Louisiana Purchase (doubling the territory of the United States),
Pursued shipping and trade interests against pirates and British force
Negotiated peace with France (decreasing the military forces of both countries).
Kim Dae Jung:
1924 - 2009
Nicknamed the “Nelson Mandela of South Korea”
President of South Korea from 1998 to 2003
Regarded as a gifted orator and charismatic politician
Kidnapped from his hotel room in Tokyo in 1973 by agents of the Korean Central Intelligence Agency for his constant criticisms against the policies of President Park Chung-Hee.
His actions in overcoming the financial crisis allowed South Korea to emerge from economic jeopardy.
His “sunshine” policies allowed South Koreans to visit their relatives in the North and eased regulations on South Korean investment in the country.
From the 13-15 June 2000, Dae-Jung would participate in the first meeting between North and South Korean leaders with Kim Jong-il
1940 (77 years)
President of Costa Rica from 1986 to 1990 and from 2006 to 2010
Recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize in 1987 for his efforts in ending the Central American Crisis.
Worked towards the signing of the Esquipulas II Accords, which aimed to promote democracy and peace on the Central American landform and remove any foreign intervention from current military affairs (mostly US).
In his first presidency, Arias also promoted the creation of the Central American Parliament, in an effort to ensure greater integration throughout the region.
An overlooked figure in preventing the Cold War from erupting in South America
1898 - 1976
First Premier of the People’s Republic of China from October 1949 to his death in January 1976.
Played a key part in the Communist party’s rise to power, developing the Chinese economy and formation of foreign policies.
Served as the Chinese foreign minister from 1949 to 1958
He advocated for a peaceful coexistence with the West after the Korean War and devised policies regarding relations and bitter disputes with the US, Taiwan, the Soviet Union, India and Vietnam
Attended the Geneva Conference of 1954, the Bandung Conference of 1955 and orchestrated Nixon’s visit to China in 1972 (helping ease relations between the two superpowers)
1931 (87 years)
Eighth and final leader of the Soviet Union from 1985 until its dissolution in 1991.
Credited as one of the people instrumental in bringing the Cold War to an end.
His policies of glasnost (openness) and perestroika (restructuring) were blamed for bringing about an end to the Soviet Union, due to the role they played in removing the Communist Party from having any influence over the actions of the state.
Received the 1990 Nobel Peace Prize for stabilizing the world
The policy of Glasnost is the one he’s most associated with. The introduction of this policy in 1988 granted Soviets the freedom of speech, freedom of the press and the release of thousands of political prisoners.
1929 - 2004
Chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization from 1969 - 2004
Founded Al - Fatah in 1958, an underground network advocating armed resistance against Israel
For his efforts, along with those of two Israeli diplomats (Yitzhak Rabin and Shimon Peres) in the signing of the Oslo Accords in 1993, they all received the 1994 Nobel Peace Prize.
Oslo II in 1995 marked the foundation of 4 more peace treaties between Israel and Palestine:
Hebron Protocol (1997)
Wye River Memorandum (1998)
Camp David Accords (2000)
“Roadmap for peace” (2002)
1944 (73 years)
Eighth secretary general of the United Nations from January 2007 to December 2016.
Regarded by many critics as the “worst UN Secretary General”
With the ongoing war in Syria, Migrant Crisis, Rohingya persecution and South Sudan, it can be said that Ban Ki-Moon was simply overloaded with far too much to deal with in so little time.
Foreign minister of South Korea from from 2004 until 2006
Able to improve relations with North Korea and help resolve the North Korean nuclear missile crisis while in that position
1905 - 1961
Second Secretary General of the United Nations from 1953 to 1961, and was widely regarded as one of the best men ever to hold that position.
Before he came to be known however, Dag was a successful Swedish public servant who helped to alleviate economic problems after the Second World War and helped to establish better relations with other European states.
After he came to become Secretary General, he was involved in multiple disputes. These included smoothing relations between Israel and other Arab states, a 1955 visit to China to negotiate the release of 11 captured US pilots (all of which served during the Korean War), and the 1956 Suez Crisis (in which multiple foreign powers tried to invade Egypt to gain control to the Suez canal).
His most notable involvement was in the 1960 Congo Crisis, where he desperately tried to find a way to unite the recently independent African state. During the six-day siege of Jadotville, Dag personally attempted to fly down to Congo to set up peace negotiations between the two parties.
He would never arrive, his plane was later found in a crash site near Northern Zambia with no survivors. Many suspect that the plane was shot down by Katangan fighters.
For his attempts at defusing the Congo Crisis, he was posthumously awarded the 1961 Nobel Peace Prize.
1909 - 1974
Third Secretary General of the United Nations, the first Non-European to hold the position
He was in office for a record 10 years and 11 months, from 1961 to 1971
Literally took over the challenge of the Congo Crisis as soon as he was sworn into office by ordering Operation Grand Slam, putting down the Katangan military and reintegrating it into the Congo
Facilitated negotiations between the US and Soviet Union in response to the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962.
Appointed Secretary General once again after a unanimous vote by the UN Security Council on December 1966
During his second term, he was publicly known for his criticisms of American military intervention during the Vietnam war
Oversaw the induction of many new African and Asian states into the UN.
Star Trek character, extremely famous throughout the Sci-Fi universe.
Ambassador for the Federation of United Planets and the Klingon Empire, helping to ease strained relations between the two.
Later on in the series, Spock became an ambassador to the Romulan Star Empire
Involved in the unsuccessful attempt to save the capital planet of the empire (Romulus) from being consumed by a Supernova.
1937 (81 years)
A man of many jobs, all of which were in a way related to diplomacy and politics. These were:
US National Security Advisor (1987-1989)
Commander of US Army Forces Command (1989)
Chairman of the Joint Chief of Staffs (1989-1993).
65th Secretary of State, serving the George W. Bush administration from 2001 to 2005, becoming the first American African to serve in such a position
During his time as the Chairman of Joint Chiefs of Staff, Powell helped the United States lead a coalition force against Iraqi troops who had invaded Kuwait in Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm.
In his term as Secretary of State, Powell unsuccessfully tried to get another coalition to combat reports of Iraqi weapons proliferation yet later revealed his sources were inaccurate and likely untrue.
One of his most notable legacies was the Powell Doctrine, a concept of warfare wherein a nation utilizes overwhelming force to minimize casualties and maximize success.